All businesses need finance sooner or later. Usually, businesses need finance for three main reasons.
Business might need finance to at the start in the form of Capital. This is known as startup capital. Startup capital is used up for initial investment such as land, building, machinery, employee people etc.
A business might need an additional source of finance when it needs to expand. This expansion may include
Extension of present facilities such as purchasing additional machinery and extending capacities’ business might also need to go in for inorganic expansion such as the purchase of another business through a takeover. Usually, a business will have to arrange a huge amount of additional finances for these purposes.
Entering new markets.
It involves huge investments in research and development and aggressive marketing campaigns.
Research and Development
Businesses need finance to develop new products. Multinational businesses usually spend millions of dollars every year in Research and Development purposes. R & D is carried out regularly in big businesses as a mean to get a competitive edge over its competitors.
Running of the business
Apart from investment at the initial stages, a business needs a constant flow of capital in the form of working capital. A shortage of working capital might lead to serious consequences for the business or cash flow problems.
During trouble times
A business might need an additional dose of capital or financial help during troubled times such as a recession, or when the sales of the business are fall temporarily due to market conditions.
To develop and market new products
a business needs to spend money on developing and marketing new products e.g. to do marketing research and test new products in “pilot” markets.
To enter new markets
when a business grows it may sell products into new markets. These can be new geographical areas to sell to (e.g. export markets) or new types of customers. This costs money in terms of research and marketing e.g. advertising campaigns and setting up retail outlets.
Take-over or acquisition
When a business buys another business, it will need money to pay for the acquisition (acquisitions involve significant investment).
To pay for the day to day running of the business
a business needs money to pay for day to day items such as paying a supplier for raw materials or paying the wages or buying a new printer cartridge.